violence

The Morality of Killing: An Investigation of the Ethics of Violence

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Can bloody violence be ethical or morally righteous?

Throughout Taiko as well as the K-Drama Tree with Deep Roots, we are presented with brutal violence in the name of war. I contest that although war is at times unavoidable, an ethical way of conducting war exists that is often ignored by the texts’ characters.

This essay will focus on the decisions both King Sejong of Tree with Deep Roots and Hideyoshi of Taiko: An Epic Novel of War and Glory in Feudal Japan have had to make as they climb to power and maintain that power in their respective kingdoms. I believe that it is King Sejong who has a deeper and more profound understanding of violence and its consequences, while Hideyoshi often wields violence carelessly and rather than using it as a last resort often jumps at the occasion to violently dominate his opposition. Through this essay I will examine theories on the morality of war, and then proceed to apply those theories to examples of the aggression of Hideyoshi and the pragmatism and prudence of Sejong.

 

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The K-Drama Tree with Deep Roots was a hit in Korea

In order to adequately investigate the morality and ethics of the decisions made by both King Sejong and Hideyoshi, we first must establish a standard of morality. While no one person can say with any certainty that they have a monopoly on the understanding of an absolute morality, I chose to use the theory proposed by James Pattison who investigates the morality of an individual’s involvement on the war rather than the war taken generally. This viewpoint will be useful as we look at the actions of individuals rather than entire nations.

Pattison explains, “The Individual-Centric Approach asserts that the justifiability of an individual’s participation depends, simply, on the merits and demerits of that contribution, rather than the war more generally,” (Pattison 39). To put it even more simply, a warrior can be morally righteous in a morally corrupt war or morally corrupt in a righteous war. Pattison first lays out the principles of Jus Ad Bellum or the Just War Theory. However, he applies these principles in the manner that is only relevant to the individual rather than the war as a whole, which has been done in past studies.

First, the individual must have a specific just cause. Pattison writes, “The right to use or assist (often-lethal) force, given the harm that it inflicts on others, can exist only when there is a good enough reason to use force,” (Pattison 40). Simply put, the individual must be using violence to bring about a specific immediate just cause.

Secondly, the individual must have the right intention. Pattison explains, “This requires that individuals do not possess a wrong intention, such as intending to use force disproportionately or to pursue an unjust end. If they act with a wrong intention, even in response to a just cause, the harm that they will inflict on others is morally problematic,” (Pattison 41).

Thirdly, the individual’s violence must be in proportion with the good it brings about, “to be proportionate, an individual’s actions needs to be reasonably effective course of action in terms of the promotion of the good compared to other potential actions, including the choice not to participate,” (Pattison 40). To use an exaggerated example, it would be unjust to kill a man to save a dog. Although the motive is just, the amount of violence is disproportionate to the good it would achieve.

Fourthly, the individual must pursue nonforcible options first. Other options such as negotiation or even coercion would be a more morally defendable approach than immediately resorting to violence.

Finally, the war must be also conducted by a legitimate institution. A legitimate institution can be understood as an institution or government that upholds the basic human rights. The institution has the resources to obtain a better understanding of the morality of the altercation. This final aspect of the Just War Theory does not directly correlate to the morality of the individual’s actions and will not be used in comparison to the actions of our characters.

In a novel that spans more than nine hundred pages, it would be foolish to think that one paper could adequately summarize the true essence of a character. Eiji Yoshikawa does a magnificent job of developing his characters displaying their growth throughout the epic novel Taiko. Hideyoshi is perhaps his most masterful character who we see as a small petulant and yet proud boy in the opening of the novel, to grow into the Taiko and ruler over all Japan. Through this development, Hideyoshi makes decisions in the name of war and efficiency that violate the acceptable ethical standards that I laid out earlier in the paper.

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Written by Eiji Yoshikawa. Taiko follows Hideyoshi as he becomes supreme ruler of Japan.

Understand that one example of violence does not define Hideyoshi as an evil character. However, I believe as the novel progresses he undergoes a consistent compromise of his honor and ethics for the sake of power. In Book Seven of Taiko, a group of workers were conscripted to build a dike to protect the surrounding castle. However, the laborers refused to work at the rate that was required to finish on schedule. While Hideyoshi’s retainers fear that they will fail to construct the dike in time Hideyoshi reassures them saying,

“We can do it… we can finish it. But it won’t be done if we get the strength of three thousand men from our three thousand workers. Now if one man works like three or even five men, our three thousand workers will have the strength of ten thousand. If the samurai supervising them act in the same way, one man will be able to muster the spirit of ten men, and we should be able to accomplish anything we want. Kanbei, I’m coming to the construction site myself,” (Yoshikawa 591).

Hideyoshi’s method of getting the most out of his workers involves a public execution of those who are asked to voice their grievances with their current working conditions. After listening to the complaint of the five selected workers, Kanbei, a subordinate of Hideyoshi’s responds as he, “Threw down his staff, unsheathed his sword, and sliced the man in two. Turning quickly to another who had started to run away, he cut him down too. At the same time, Rokuro and Kyuemon—who were standing behind Kanbei—wielded their swords and finished off the other three men in a shower of gushing blood,” (Yoshikawa 593).

In this way, Hideyoshi is able to inspire the workers to finish the dike in the allotted time. If we compare Hideyoshi’s actions to the Individual-Centric Just War Theory laid out by Pattison, we will see that indeed Hideyoshi’s actions were morally corrupt. I will attempt to give Hideyoshi every benefit of the doubt as we look at the four relevant criteria.

Does Hideyoshi have a specific just cause? The dike being constructed would protect Hideyoshi and the people of the clan from incoming invaders so we will say that he satisfies this criterion.

Does he have the right intention? Once again, we will give Hideyoshi the benefit of the doubt and believe that his intention is to save the lives of the many by building this dike and does not possess another more selfish motive.

Is his violence in proportion with the good it brings? In this regard, there is little argument that can be made in favor of Hideyoshi’s violence. The grizzly statement that the public executions made to the workers did not bring about the building of dike, it is the fear that it creates within the workers that incites them to build. Therefore, the violence committed was merely to send a message and is not proportionate.

Finally, does Hideyoshi attempt nonviolent options first before resorting to force? Once again, Hideyoshi’s actions are indefensible. This public display of violence was undoubtedly effective, but I do not believe that it was the only possible way to inspire the workers, nor would it become morally or ethically permissible if had been the only option. Hideyoshi was not new to construction projects. In fact, in Book Two he assures his lord, Nobunaga, that he can build a castle wall in three days that was not near completion after twenty. With a nearly impossible task to accomplish, he inspires his workers who were previously resentful and lazy with a rousing speech exclaiming,

“’But the rise and fall of a province is not in a castle. It’s right here in you. The people of the province are its stonewalls and moats. Working on the construction of this castle, you may feel as though you’re plastering the walls of somebody else’s house, but you’re wrong. You’re building your own defenses. What would happen if this castle was burned to the ground one day? Surely it would not be the fate of the castle alone. The castle town, too, would be engulfed in flames, and the entire province would be destroyed… So why is it that we are at peace today? Fundamentally, of course, it’s thanks to His Lordship. But you, the people of this province, most certainly protect us with this castle as your very center…’ [Hideyoshi] spoke with tears in his eyes, but he was not pretending. He grieved from the heart and meant every word he spoke,” (Yoshikawa 163).

After this rousing speech the workers meet the challenge and complete the wall within the three days. From this excerpt we are able to see that the sincerity and passion of a younger Hideyoshi was able to evoke the same response from workers without the murder of five individuals. While we are able to use these two examples as comparisons and note that Hideyoshi had other options available to him rather than violence, we are often asked to accept the grizzly violence in the novel as the only option available to our protagonist. However, I contest that through the sincerity and passion he had shown in his youth he would discover methods that avoided violence and were more ethically permissible. King Sejong from the series Tree with Deep Roots provides an excellent example of effective nonviolence.

King Sejong is perhaps the series most intriguing and well-developed character. The beginning of the K-Drama takes us through Sejong’s adolescence as his father brutally destroys his enemies with little remorse in order to consolidate all the power to himself. However, Sejong has a different view of what his reign will bring saying, “I will rule with words only. I’m only going to use military power to defend against foreign power and to defend our land. Having a strong armor, military, and a soft flesh, culture. That is the Joseon I will make,” (Tree with Deep Roots Ep. 3).

After the death of Sejong’s father, Sejong leads his kingdom with great wisdom. Sejong creates and introduces the Hangul alphabet to the Korean people. Previously, individuals would have had to learn tens of thousands of Chinese characters in order to effectively read and write, a task that was difficult for scholars and impossible for commoners. Therefore, Sejong and his advisors created a simple alphabet with only 24 characters.

In episode 15 of Tree with Deep Roots, King Sejong is faced with the difficult decision of sacrificing his kidnapped son for the sake of the new Hangul alphabet. I contest that by refusing to act with violence against his son’s kidnappers, he effectively handles the situation with moral righteousness.

It is important to understand that when I say effectively, I am not implying that it is merely the best way of addressing the problem without violence, but rather I’m asserting that it was the best method of any available options in order to bring about the most good for his cause.

Sejong is presented with the question at what length is he justified in retrieving his son? Rather than acting with violence, he takes an interesting and ingenious approach. As King Sejong addresses Pyung, a member of the group that has kidnapped his son, he begins with an enraged attack exclaiming, “If you touch the Prince [Gwangpyeong] or So-yi, every member of my military I will call to arms, and will sweep all of you around the village market in front of the people. We will display all of your dead bodies. Those dead bodies will be ripped to pieces and sent all over the country,” (Tree with Deep Roots ep. 15). However, Sejong then quickly breaks down in front of Pyung sobbing, “Please… save Gwangpyeong. I will give up everything… everything!” (Tree with Deep Roots ep. 15). It is only after this that Sejong’s demeanor changes for a third time and asks Pyung if it was these types of emotional responses that he had expected? Sejong then reveals that he will not react in this way and he will neither retaliate in violence against Pyung and his friends and family, nor will he simply give into his commands. Sejong’s revenge against the kidnapping, and perhaps murder, of his son will be the triumph of the plan that Pyung and his allies are trying to destroy.

Sejong threatens, albeit a faux threat, to publicly kill Pyung and his family if they go through with the murder of his son. However, I believe Sejong chooses both the morally stronger path as well as the more effective path. Rather than merely threatening his enemies, which will undoubtedly cause more violence, Sejong chooses nonviolence and ignores his aggressors rendering their antics useless. If Sejong had chosen to respond with violence, his actions may have fulfilled the requirements laid out by Pattison, however, he still refused to give in and responded with nonviolence, which eventually led to the return of his son.

There have never been clear lines of what constitutes justifiable violence, and I am certainly not condemning those who have acted violently in a situation. Both Hideyoshi and Sejong are presented with situations that have seemingly no justifiable route. Rather, I am proposing that we should avoid rashness in regards to violence. I do not expect all violent altercations from the characters of our text to be completely morally righteous, however, I do expect and hope that they would truly grapple with the morality and ethical nature of violence before committing towards a certain course of action. It is this vital introspection that is paramount to not only the characters in our texts, but also to the world leaders across the globe.

Works Cited

Pattison, James. “When Is It Right to Fight? Just War Theory and the Individual-Centric Approach.” Ethical Theory and Moral Practice 16.1 (2013): 35-54. SpringerLink. Web. <http://link.springer.com/article/10.1007%2Fs10677-011-9323-6#page-1&gt;.

Yoshikawa, Eiji. Taiko: An Epic Novel of War and Glory in Feudal Japan. New York: Kodonasha, 2012. Print.

“Episode 15” Tree with Deep Roots. Seoul Broadcasting System. Seoul. 23 Nov. 2011. Television.

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Rodney King: Symbol of Police Brutality and the 1992 Los Angeles Riots

Photo taken during the 1992 Los Angeles riots.

A National Guardsman stands by during the 1992 Los Angeles riots. The graffitied wall in the background shows support for Rodney King.

The Los Angeles riots of 1992 were triggered by the acquittals of police officers in the Rodney King verdict. King became a symbol of police brutality and unified Los Angeles in violent protest of the verdict.

The above image was captured in 1992 at the Los Angeles riots. The image features a White National Guardsman standing alert and armed. The Guardsman is wearing combat boots, a camouflaged uniform, a watch, and protective helmet; he is also carrying an M16 rifle. The man is gazing at something in the distance, presumably the ongoing rioting. The Guardsman is standing on a sidewalk comprised of square concrete slabs. A small patch of overgrown, brownish-green grass is seen directly behind the Guardsman. The sidewalk is dirty and littered with various trash, including a Nike advertisement.

Behind the Guardsman, a discolored beige wall has been spray-painted black with various graffiti. The most prominent graffiti in the photo reads, “This is for Rodney King,” and below that, “We love you my brother.” The remaining graffiti is a conglomeration of scratch-outs and various messages. In the right-hand corner of the image, the graffitied wall reads, “X·Peace,” and “Police 187.” More graffiti can be seen above the National Guardsman’s head on the left side of the wall in the photo, but it is illegible.

This image is filled with historical and cultural significance. The graffiti memorializes the LA community’s support for Rodney King. In March of 1991, King was severely beaten by the LAPD, which was videotaped by a nearby resident. The LA community was all too familiar with police brutality, corruption, and racism within the LAPD. By videotaping the event, Rodney King was transformed into a symbol of police brutality. No longer was this issue an invisible one—there was proof and the racism was visible. Four of the police officers involved were charged with excessive force and assault with a deadly weapon. In April of 1992, a verdict was reached: three of the four police officers were acquitted of all charges. Los Angeles was outraged by the verdict and was not going to tolerate this injustice. Rioting commenced.

The graffiti in the above image indicates the community’s support of Rodney King. The acquittal of the officers made the Black community feel worthless. In Paul Beatty’s The White Boy Shuffle, the Rodney King verdict and resulting LA riots are documented and experienced by Beatty’s protagonist, Gunnar Kaufman. Upon hearing the verdict, Gunnar reflects, “Let go? The officers had to be guilty of something… I never felt so worthless in my life… Sitting on the couch watching the announcer gloat, my pacifist Negro chrysalis peeled away, and a glistening anger began to test its wings… I wanted to taste immediate vindication.” (Beatty, 130-132). After the verdict, the community utilized violence as an outlet for the pain and unfairness of the situation; Rodney King unified the Black community and became its rallying point in violent protest.

The above image documents the reality of the LA riots in 1992; “This is for Rodney King / We love you my brother,” highlight the sentiments of the rioting—the community reached its limit for tolerating the inequality of the law and the LAPD, and King was its unifying symbol.

Source:  

Chan, Bryan. The 1992 Los Angeles riots. 1992. Photograph. Los Angeles Times, Los Angeles. Web. 30 Apr 2013. <http://framework.latimes.com/2012/04

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Living to Die

Vulture stalking a child

Vulture stalking a child

Being made an orphan in Africa at a young age makes it almost impossible for children to grow to adulthood.

Many people in Africa are forced to live with the constant fear of disease, war, starvation, abandonment and death. With these conditions, it is very common for children’s parents to die. According to the United Nations, there are over 48 million orphans in sub-Saharan Africa alone (The Cradle Project). These children are thus forced to fight for survival against the same conditions that caused their parent’s death.

Many children become orphans at a young age because their parents die from starvation. If parents are the primary means of obtaining food in a family, then when they die, their children are left without a way of getting food. Authors of Food Crops in a Changing Climate, Martin Parry, Cynthia Rosenzweig and Matthew Livermor, argue that the implications of climate change on food production leads to risk of hunger. The authors state that the early stages of global warming are causing crops to reach their maximum temperature tolerance. There is also a decrease of rainfall in regions of high risk such as Africa. Therefore, the crops cannot grow in high temperatures and dry lands.

The authors explain how researchers predicted the growth of crops as influenced by factors such as climate, soils and management practices. Researchers used crop models to estimate how climate change and increased levels of carbon dioxide alter yields of work crops. The results of the experiment demonstrate that in these conditions, the growing period of the crops is shortened, the water availability decreases and poor vernalization causes reduced yields.

Pedro Sanchez’s Soil Fertility and Hunger in Africa illustrates how the poor soil in Africa is to blame for the lack of crops and thus being the cause of hunger. Sanchez states, “About 180 million Africans—up 100% since 1970—do not have access to sufficient food to lead healthy and productive lives.” He argues that depletion of soil fertility, weeds, pests, and diseases are the reason for low food production in Africa.

African AIDS orphans

African AIDS orphans

Many children become orphans at a young age because their parents die from HIV/AIDS. If parents die from HIV/AIDS, then it is possible that they could have passed the disease onto their children or the stigmas around this disease could have a negative impact on the children. The risk of death and likelihood that a child will lose one or both parents to the disease is very high.

In 2010, around 1.2 million people died from AIDS in sub-Saharan Africa. There are an estimated 6.5 million children who are orphaned by AIDS in Sub-Saharan Africa. Plus, since the beginning of the epidemic, 14.8 million children have lost one or both parents to HIV/AIDS (“HIV and AIDS in Africa”). UNICEF states that 12 million orphans have lost at least one parent to HIV/AIDS, and in four short years this number will skyrocket to 18.4 million (The Cradle Project).

The following video demonstrates the lifestyle of children orphaned by HIV/AIDS in Africa.

Many children become orphans at a young age because their parents die from effects of war. If parents die from effects of war, the children are left alone without adult protection in a violent environment in which they are forced to fend for themselves. Clifton C. Crais explains in his book, Poverty, War, and Violence in South Africa, how the violence from war with European forces caused destruction of property and crops. The war violence led to displacement, poverty, famine, sickness, premature death and a world of inequality and vulnerability (Crais).

According to the BBC News article, Millions Dead in Sudan Civil War, the ongoing civil war in Sudan has caused the deaths of nearly two million people since 1983. The fight for control of southern and central Sudan killed one in five of the southern Sudanese population. More than 70,000 people died in the first 6 months. These deaths are caused by warfare, war-induced famine or direct government or rebel policies.

Furthermore, Gerard Prunier’s Africa’s World War: Congo, the Rwandan Genocide, and the Making of a Continental Catastrophe aims to explain how the Rwandan genocide led to the slaughtering of 400,000 people (Prunier). Therefore, it is likely that parents will die as a result of war violence, thus leaving their children orphaned.

Orphans throughout sub-Saharan Africa are among the most neglected and forgotten children on the planet. When parents die due to famine, HIV/AIDS and war violence, children become orphans and are forced to fight for survival without guidance and care. As a result, these children are at higher risk of HIV infection, emotionally vulnerable and are financially desperate. Therefore, with these conditions, it is very unlikely that these children will grow to adulthood. The cycle of death continues with no end in sight.

Bibliography

AIDS Orphans in Africa. Youtube. Novartis Foundation, 14 Feb. 2009. Web. 27 Oct. 2012. <http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=3o1Zq3mA9LA&gt;.

Carter, Kevin. Vulture Stalking a Child. 1993. Photograph. Sudan.

Crais, Clifton C. Poverty, War, and Violence in South Africa. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, 2011. Print.

“HIV and AIDS in Africa.” Avert. Web. 27 Oct. 2012. <http://www.avert.org/hiv-aids-africa.htm&gt;.

Martin Parry, Cynthia Rosenzweig and Matthew Livermor
Philosophical Transactions: Biological Sciences, Vol. 360, No. 1463, Food Crops in a Changing Climate (Nov. 29, 2005), pp. 2125-2138

“Millions Dead in Sudan Civil War.” BBC News. BBC, 11 Dec. 1998. Web. 27 Oct. 2012. <http://news.bbc.co.uk/2/hi/africa/232803.stm&gt;.

Orphans in Africa. Digital image. Africare. Web. 27 Oct. 2012. <http://www.africare.org/news/news2007/AmericanExpressmembers.php&gt;.

Prunier, Gerard. Africa’s World War: Congo, the Rwandan Genocide, and the making of a continental catastrophe. Oxford; New York: Oxford University Press, 2009. Print.

Sanchez, Pedro. ”Soil Fertility and Hunger in Africa”. Science Mag. Vol. 295. 15 March 2002.

Sheahen, Laura, and Sara Fajardo. “East Africa Famine.” Interview. Blog Critics. N.p., 13 Aug. 2011. Web. 27 Oct. 2012. <http://blogcritics.org/culture/article/east-africa-famine-an-interview-with/&gt;.

The Cradle Project. Web. <http://www.thecradleproject.org/thecrisis.shtml&gt;.

Thurow, Roger. “Agricultural Development Key to Ending Hunger in Africa”. World Watch. Nourishing the Planet, 2011. Web. 23 October. 2012.

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